In order to combat the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and related materials, equipment and technologies, the EU P2P programme for the dual-use goods aims at enhancing the effectiveness of dual-use export controls worldwide.
Export Controls or, Strategic Trade Controls aim at administering and facilitating the international trade of dual-use goods. Dual-use goods are highly sensitive products and technologies used for either civilian or military applications.
The overall framework for these efforts is set in the EU Global Strategy, the preceding EU Security Strategy (2003, PDF), the EU Strategy against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and EU regulation No 2021/821 and its amendments, the EC Delegated Act containing the annual revision to EU dual-use control list as a reference.
At international level, the legal ground is set by UNSCR 1540, calling all states to establish, develop, review and maintain appropriate effective national export and trans-shipment controls over nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery, including appropriate laws and regulations to control export, transit, trans-shipment and re-export.
The EU P2P Programme for dual-use goods contributes to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) risk mitigation and, as such, it is associated with the EU's Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence (EU CBRN CoE).
The EU's cooperation programme on export controls of dual-use goods began in 2004 with only four members, from South East Europe. Today it has expanded to include more than 30 countries from 6 regions.
Thanks to the Programme's activities and the active engagement of its partners, more than 17 countries have formally adopted some version of the EU dual-use control list in their national legal frameworks.
The programme's objectives are to transfer EU best practises regarding dual-use trade controls and support third countries to meet their international obligations, most notably the 1540 UN Security Council Resolution's requirements.
The programme strengthens national and regional capacity, taking into account the balance between security and economic considerations.
Examples of cooperation activities include:
- support in the drafting of relevant export control legislation
- provision of training for customs and licensing officials
- train-the-trainer seminars
- exchange of good practices
- general awareness raising among industry
- case studies and table top exercises
The programme further operates on the basis of peer-to-peer consultations.
Approximately 200 experts with diverse professional backgrounds from across the European Union offer technical expertise to the various EU P2P projects.
Programme Implementation – Projects and Partners
Global Project (EU CBRN CoE Project 64)
Since 1 July, 2019, the so-called global project (South East Europe, Eastern Europe and Caucasus, North Africa) includes also the South East Asian partner countries (former CoE Project 47). The project is implemented by various EU Member States' authorities and bodies in the form of a consortium led by Expertise France (EF). EF is the French public agency for international technical cooperation.
The consortium includes: the French Export Control Office on Dual-Use Goods (SBDU), the German Federal Office for Economic Affairs and Export Control (BAFA), King’s College London, and University of Liege.
The latest phase of the project has a duration of four years (2017-2021).
Jordan, and Lebanon and Iraq (EU CBRN CoE Project 38)
This project aims also at enhancing effectiveness of dual-use trade control systems with a special attention to the regional dimension and taking into account specific geopolitical challenges. The first phase of its implementation addressed Jordan and Kazakhstan (2015-2017). During the current phase of its implementation (August 2017- July October 2021) the countries in scope are Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq.
The project is implemented by the German Federal Office for Economic Affairs and Export Control (BAFA). This project is also practice- oriented and it relies on peer-to-peer consultations.
Funding through IcSP
The EU P2P programme on dual-use export controls is funded through the Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP).
IcSP is a strategic tool designed to address a number of global security and development challenges in complement to geographic instruments.
The IcSP is the responsibility of the Commission's Directorate General (DG) for International Cooperation and Development (DEVCO).
Other EU activities on Dual-Use Export Controls
Two additional initiatives, the so-called Targeted Initiatives concerning dual-use export controls are undertaken by the EU.
- To engage the academic community in the CBRN area of knowledge by:
- raising awareness of risks relating to intangible transfers of technology
- providing education and training to students and practitioners on export control matters.
- To encourage partner countries to commit to implementing and enforcing effective export controls by:
- setting up useful sources of information
- contributing to the development of guidance and model Internal Compliance Programmes (ICPs)
- establishing communication channels with industry and academia.
Export Controls of Dual-Use Materials and Technologies in Central Asia
The Targeted Initiative (TI) on “Export Controls of Dual-Use Materials and Technologies in Central Asia” started in September 2017.
It is financed by the EU's IcSP and it is implemented by the International Science and Technology Center , in Nur-Sultan (ISTC).
The participating countries are: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Georgia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Mongolia.
Export Controls of Dual-Use Materials and Technologies in GUAM Countries
A similar TI on “Export Controls of Dual-Use Materials and Technologies in GUAM Countries” began in January 2018.
It is also funded by the EU's IcSP and, in this case it is implemented by the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU).
The participating countries are: Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova (GUAM).
TIM Dual-Use is a web-based platform tailored to the mapping of Dual-use technologies listed in the "EU dual-use control list" and Emerging technologies